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just remember the atomic number or periodic table and arrange  electrons in shells . valency  is the electrons present in outermost shell like

1)carbon ; C

atomic number: 6

electronic C ; 2,4

4 is the valency

2) calcium ; Ca

atomic number : 20

electronic C: 2, 8,8,2

2 is the valency

4 2 4
Valency is the number of electrons present in the outermost shell.
for example:
electronic configuration of of chlorine =1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5
valency=2+5=7. As the last two digits are the same(3)

electronic configuration of sodium=1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
valency = 1
3 2 3
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