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Class X Sciences

[papers from previous years]

(a) A person cannot read newspaper placed nearer than 50 cm from
his eyes. Name the defect of vision he is suffering from. Draw a
ray diagram to illustrate this defect. List its two possible
causes. Draw a ray diagram to show how this defect may be
corrected using a lens of appropriate focal length.
(b) We see advertisements for eye donation on television or in
newspapers. Write the importance of such advertisements.



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see the diagram.

Normally our eye is able to see any object clearly between (adults) 25 cm and infinity. The distance 25 cm is called the near point. The far point is the distance up to which we can see clearly(normally infinity). The eye muscles focus (by contracting and expanding themselves) the incoming light rays so that they they converge on the retina. Normal focal length of eye lens is 2.5 cm.

A person may not  be able to see the objects nearby clearly.  That is like objects between 25 cm and 50 cm for example.    The reason is that the eye muscles are able to focus light rays only behind the retina.   They are not able to adjust focal length of the eyelens.   The converging power has become less and focal length is > 2.5 cm. This defect is called HyperMetropia.   We need to wear a converging lens to focus rays on to retina. This is called farsightedness or long sightedness.

For the person who is not able to see objects nearer than 50 cm:
       we use convex lens to create a virtual object of an object at 25 cm at 50 cm.  The objects at distances between 25 cm and 50 cm  will result in virtual images placed erect at distances more than 50 cm.  So the person will see them clearly.

     v = -50 cm      u = -25 cm    then focal length of convex lens is:

     1/v - 1/u =  -1/50 + 1/25 = 1/50    =>  f = 50 cm  and power is +2 Dioptre.


eye donations are important in this world.  Some persons due to illness or due to accidents may lose their  vision.  For them, any person who dies could donate  their eyes.  The doctors  (opthalmologists) extract the cornea of the dead person and arrange it on the eyes of a person whose cornea is damaged or diseased.  This is called corneal transplantation.

Eye donation is very important  deed one could do , as one has no use for the cornea after death.  These could be used for eye sight of another person to live more meaningfully.  So this is much more than money donation.

Eye donation advertisements will spread awareness about this fact and people will know more about it and know also that there is no harm in doing it, rather it is prestigious to do that.

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please click on thanks azur blue button above
A) Pupil control the amount of light entering the eye.The pupil changes size to adjust for amount of light available.
b) Retina is the nerve layer lining back of the eye. The retina senses light and convert it into neural signals that are sent to the brain.
c) Cornea transplantation involves replacing the cornea. In this process only cornea is replaced..Eye donation should be encouraged because it's just like a priceless gift which one person give to other and also this is how even after death he or she is alive..
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A} pupil controls the amount of light entering by ajusting focal length.                                                                    
b} Retina is light sensitive part which forms image.                                                                  
c} eye is precious orgon  by which we can visualise objects& if we die we should donate to the required person so that he or she can able to see this colourful world.  
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