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                       Natural Geysers  (geography / Physics)

      A geyser is a water spring which discharges (erupts) water (along with dirt) turbulently (violently) now and then steam comes out steadily.  The geothermal energy and expansion of vapour at low pressures and high temperatures  causes the geysers.

       The formation of geysers is a hydro-geological phenomenon under certain conditions.  They are nearby volcanoes and due to the presence of magma.    The small holes in Earth are called “surface vents”.     There are fractures, fissures, porous spaces, cavities in side Earth’s crust.  There is water available inside Earth up to the depth of about 10 km.   The rocks are very very hot there.   This system of water reservoir holding water, getting heated and coming out through the vents is called a plumbing system.  Along these vents SiO2 or geyserite is deposited and makes the vents smooth and hard.  They enable high pressure to be maintained along the vents.

   After certain duration, the pressure of water inside Earth comes down, so geysers stop.  The water on the surface seeps through pores in Earth and this slowly collects back into the reservoirs of the geysers.  Thus the geyser cycle again starts.

      They exist in about 1000-1500 places on Earth.   There are a lot of them in the USA, especially at Yellowstone National Park at Wyoming.  The Grand geyser in USA erupts for about 10 minutes every 12 hours.  There is a valley of Geysers in Russia in Kamchatka peninsula.  This is the major one in Euro-Asia.  In India there are some including one famous one in Hariyana.

There are around 80 in El Tatio , Chile.   There are some in Taup Volcanic zone in (North island of) New Zealand.   It is supposed to have reached 160 meters high.   In Iceland too there are famous geysers including the Great Geysir.

                 Domestic Electric Heater/Geyser

Working principle (Physics)
     The Joules heating effect of an electric resistance is used to heat water.

Description of the heater:
   We use electric geysers at homes or in clinics or shops to heat water.  It is cylindrical shaped and is mounted on walls. It has a capacity of 50 to 250 liters.  See diagram.

   It consists of a water container vessel with an inlet for cold water and an outlet for hot water. The heater contains a thick (tubular) electric conductor (metallic resistance) coil element. It gets heated due to the dissipation of energy when current passes through it. The heat energy is transmitted to water through conduction and convection mechanisms. Usually the heating element is made of Nickel or chromium.

    There is a mechanism to measure the temperature of water using a thermostat. It shuts off, automatically, the current supply to the heating element, when the temperature is above a preset value. This is set in the factory.  There may be LEDs or small bulbs to indicate whether the heater is switched on or off.

   The water container is usually made of a material which does not get corroded or rusted easily.  The water container is protected with insulating material and air gap so that the heat energy is retained inside the container.  The materials for the outer casings are usually stainless steel, plastic and china glass. Plastic is safer to prevent from leakages and shocks.

Power and rating related information:
    The heater is usually based on AC voltage. It is given a rating : power it consumes, current it passes when the rated voltage is applied. Voltage rating V could be 220 V in countries like India and 110 V in USA. Power rating P could be 1 KW to 5 kW depending on size.  

    Heating Power P = V² / Resistance of heating coil.
    If the water tank capacity is L liters, then rate of heating is: 
              = P / (L * density * specific heat )  = P / ( L * 1 * 4181) = 
              = P / (4181 L)  °K / sec

    If we want to heat water from 20° to 50°, then it takes time T = 
                 T = 30 * 4181 L / P = 2000 L / P  minutes.

    If people could wait for 15 minutes for L litres , then
                   Power needed P = 2000 L /  L = 2 kW

Instant Heaters

    We get instant heaters also. They have a small capacity (2 litres). The water is heated at a constant rate as the water flows through the geyser.  There is no storage and not much insulation provided in this type of heaters.  A heating (electric resistor) coil is used in them. The wattage could be around 2 kW.  Care must be taken as if there is not enough water, it may burn the coil.  Flow of water can be decreased or increased to have hotter or colder water.  

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Geyser is a long narrow, vertical cavity formed in earth crust in the earth crust into which underground water seeps. Here the water column is heated by volcanic heat at where the temperature is above 100C due to the pressure exerted by the water column above. due to the deeper positions, this water is very hot than ground water. therefore bubbles arise and the water pushes up. then the eruption will be started. Due to pressure the water rushes out. thus the geyser continues to spray hot water into air.  
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