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Pollen is the male gametophyte of seed plants. Both gymnosperms (cone-bearing plants) and angiosperms (flowering plants) produce pollen as part of sexual reproduction. In gymnosperms pollen is produced in microsporangiate cones (male cones or pollen cones), while in angiosperms pollen is produced in the anthers (part of the stamen within the flower). Each pollen grain typically consists of one to a few cells. The wall of the pollen grain consists of two layers, the exine (outer wall) and intine (inner wall). The exine may be smooth or ornamented with spines, warts, granules, pores or furrows.
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Pollen is a fine to coarse powder containing the microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce the male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat made of sporopollenin that protects the gametophytes during the process of their movement from the stamens to the pistil of flowering plants or from the male cone to the female cone of coniferous plants.
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