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2015-10-02T22:38:05+05:30

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I) histamine, pheromones , enzymes, peptides, amino acids and some other acids
ii) 
histamine, acetylcholine and serotonin

Nobody knows their excact composition.
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2015-10-08T23:26:45+05:30

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Their venom contains (amino) acids, peptides. (proteins and enzymes).
They can be neutralized by alkyl liquids to some extent.  Antivenin (antivenene) is given to neutralize their effect by doctors.

Honey bee sting:


      Honey bee stings by penetrating its barbed sharp stinger into the skin of the victim animal.  It injects an acidic chemical apitoxin or bee venom containing mainly peptides.  Main component is the acidic peptide toxin “melittin” (50%).  Others are “histamine”, phospholipase A2 enzyme, Apamin, Adolapin, Hyaluronidase, Dopamine, Noradrenaline, Protease-inhibitors, Teriapin and other amines.

     A victim of honey bee sting can escape further attacks by entering water and by washing off the “alarm pheromones” released by the bee on the skin of the victim.  The smell of pheromones attracts other bees. 

   First, the stinger must be removed from the body immediately.  Apply some cold thing like ice on the skin to reduce pain.  A local anesthesia (Benzocaine) or a pain killer and applying menthol reduce the itch.  In traditional cures, applying damp clay, salt, baking soda, garlic, tooth paste, alkali liquid, aspirin paste etc. are recommended.   Ammonia liquids can used to wash the skin, which removes a part of the venom.   Doctors often give Titanus injection too.  The deeply injected venom comes out through sweat and other means slowly.  Pain comes down in some hours and the swelling in a few days.


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Sea-nettle sting

      They sting with the long finger like structures called tentacles.   Their venom is also called jellyfish venom.  It is possible to appear as a mild rash on the skin.  The venom contains histamine, serotonin, kinins or prostaglandins etc.   Basically they contain peptides and enzymes.

        Wash off the sting area as soon as possible.  Apply sea water (salty) rather than normal water.  The parts of the tentacles on skin get washed off.  Remove the stinger.

      To get some relief from the pain, apply some anti-itching creams.  The contain antihistamins and hydrocortisones.  Calamine lotion can be used.  Traditional remedies include dandelion, horsetail, , dock lead, plantain, jewel weed, spores of a fern plant, damp mud, saliva, baking soda, oil, lemon juice, talcum powder and milk of magnesia.  Applying them reduces pain.  When they dry off, scrape off material applied  on the skin.  Apply ice.  It takes some days to heal completely.  The doctors may give Antivenon injections too.
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