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Decline in the quality of soils by the action of man and nature is called soil pollution. The main factors of soil pollution include excessive erosion, greater use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insec­ticides and herbicides, urban and industrial wastes, forest fires, water logging, leaching and drought etc. Studies have shown that soil pollution is increasing at a faster rate both in rural and urban areas of India.The increasing use of chemical fertilizers and biocides particularly after Green Revolution, the use of untreated industrial water in irrigation, over irriga­tion, deforestation, defective land use practices etc. have led to the degradation of soils in many parts of the country. The consumption of chemical fertilizers has more than tripled from 5.5 million tons in 1980-81 to 18.07 million tons in 1999-2000. Pun­jab, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu have higher per hectare consumption of chemical fertiliz­ers. Excessive use of fertilizers has led to the degradation of soils in many parts of these states.
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