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In the 12th and 13th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded parts of northern India and established the Delhi Sultanate in the former Hindu holdings. The subsequent Slave dynasty of Delhiged to conquer large areas of northern India, approximately equal in extent to the ancient Gupta Empire, while the Khilji dynasty conquered most of central India but were ultimately unsuccessful in conquering and uniting the subcontinent. The Sultanate ushered in a period of Indian cultural renaissance. The resulting "Indo-Muslim" fusion of cultures left lasting syncretic monuments in architecture, music, literature, religion, and clothing. It is surmised that the language of Urdu (literally meaning "horde" or "camp" in various Turkic dialects) was born during the Delhi Sultanate period as a result of the intermingling of the local speakers of Sanskritic Prakrits with immigrants speaking Persian, Turkic and Arabic under the Muslim rulers. The Delhi Sultanate is the only Indo-Islamic empire to enthrone one of the few female rulers in India, Razia Sultana (1236–1240
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Muhammad Ghazni formed the Ghorid dynasty which was then expanded by Muhammad Ghori.He tried to expand it into India.He conquered Punjab,Sind,Ajmer,Delhi,Benaras & Kanauj. After this he returned to Ghor leaving the Indian territories in charge of Qutb-ud-din Aibak. He proclaimed himself as the Sultan of Turkish territories in India. He made Delhi his capital and thus founded the DELHI SULTANATE. 
Delhi Sultanate had five dynasties :- 
1. The Mamluk Dynasty
2. The Khalji Dynasty
3. The Tughluq Dynasty ( Turkish Origin)
4. The Sayyid Dynasty 
5. The Lodi Dynasty ( Afghan Origin).

This dynasty consists of :
i) Qutb-ud-din Aibak 
ii) Iltutmish
iii) Ghiyas-ud-din Balban

This dynasty consists of :
i) Alau-ud-din Khalji

This dynasty consists of :
i) Muhammad-bin-Tughluq
ii) Firoz Tughluq

It was established by Khizr Khan.

This dynasty consists of :
i) Sikandar Lodi
ii) Ibrahim Lodi.

The Lodi dynasty and the Delhi Sultanate came to end when Babur invaded India and defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat in 1526.

Then after the Mughal Dynasty was established in India.
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