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However, it is clear that human activities in urbanized areas threaten the groundwater not only due diffuse contaminant loading from urban recharge system, but also due to many other ways. This means that the different forms of land use such as landfills, urban agriculture, industry and trade as well as diverse residential types with their corresponding wastewater systems influence the emission of pollutants in surface and groundwater, including groundwater rechargeIt seems that urbanization reduces infiltration to groundwater due to the impermeabilization of the catchment by paved areas, buildings and roads. But recharge beneath cities is usually substantially greater than the pre-urban values (Foster et al. 1993, Lerner 2000). The sources and pathways for groundwater recharge in urban areas are more numerous and complex than in rural environments. The increase of groundwater recharge in urbanized areas is closely related to three main sources: rainwater, wastewater and main leakage from water supply networks. In cities without adequate sewers for waste water transport, as mush as 90 % of abstracted water may return as groundwater recharge (Lerner et al. 1990). In these cities, the most important recharge source would be the infiltration of waste water from large numbers of septic tanks, latrines and soakaways as well as inadequate sewers (Lerner 2002). This is especially relevant for cities that are built atop shallow aquifers and/or for cities being located in a river system. The effect of urban recharge sources will be always significantly larger than precipitation recharge in semi arid and arid regions. But in humid areas, urban recharge may only balance the loss of precipitation recharge caused by the impermeable areas, and the overall effect of urbanization will be small. Fast growing cities with an inadequate wastewater system have potentially major effect on increasing groundwater recharge than cities with sewerage system. It can be also concluded that almost all urbanization processes can potentially increase the rate of infiltration to groundwater. The effect of urbanization on the quality of recharge is commonly poor, especially if waste water is an important component.

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Uncontrolled urbanization and the growing population pressure are essential challenges for the water management in urbanized regions of the emerging- and developing countries. In terms of the environment, the reciprocal impact of urban development and groundwater represents one of the most important aspects of growing cities.The interaction between urban development and groundwater may be explained in the relation with the land use pattern and stage of city evolution on affecting the quantity and quality of groundwater (see Figure 1). Quantity and quality changes are caused commonly by the increase of groundwater abstraction and the existing of new sources of recharge Putra 2007). Important previous studies of the effect of fast growing cities on groundwater are given by Foster et al. (1993), Morris et al. (1994) and Vasqeuz-Sune et al. 2005. The main issues concluded from these studies are:

– Urbanized area changes groundwater recharge or cycle, with modification to the existing recharge and the introduction of the new sources

– Discharging of new sources of recharge in urbanized area causes extensive but essentially diffuse groundwater contamination.

– Fluctuations in groundwater levels and

– impact on engineering structure.

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