The biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems. It can also be termed as the zone of life on Earth, a closed system (apart from solar and cosmic radiation and heat from the interior of the Earth), and largely self-regulating.[1]By the most general biophysiological definition, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithospheregeosphere,hydrosphere, and atmosphere. The biosphere is postulated to have evolved, beginning with a process of biopoesis(life created naturally from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds) or biogenesis (life created from living matter), at least some 3.5 billion years ago.[2][3] The earliest evidence for life on Earth includes biogenicgraphite found in 3.7 billion-year-old metasedimentary rocks from Western Greenland[4] and microbial mat fossilsfound in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone from Western Australia.[5][6] More recently, in 2015, "remains of biotic life" were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia.[7][8] According to one of the researchers, "If life arose relatively quickly on Earth ... then it could be common in the universe."[7]