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Like other developing countries, Green Revolution has influenced the economy and way of life in India to a great extent as is evident from the following points:

1. Increase in Agricultural Production:

The introduction of Green Revolution in 1967-68 has resulted in phenomenal increase in the production of agricultural crops especially in food-grains. From 1967 onwards, the Green Revolution aimed at bringing about a Grain Revolution.

Among the food grains too, it is the wheat crop which drew maximum benefit from Green Revolution. The production of wheat increased by more than three times between 1967-68 and 2003-04 while the overall increase in the production of cereals was only two times. On account of this reason, it is said that the Green Revolution in India is largely the Wheat Revolution.

2. Prosperity of Farmers:

With the increase in farm production the earnings of the farmers also increased and they became prosperous. This has, especially, been the case with big farmers having more than 10 hectares of land.

3. Reduction in import of food-grains:

The main benefit of Green Revolution was the increase in the production of food-grains, as a result of which there was a drastic reduction in their imports. We are now self sufficient in food-grains and have sufficient stock in the central pool. Sometimes we are in a position to export food-grains also.

The per capita net availability of food-grains has also increased from 395 grams per day in early 1950s to the level of 436 grams in 2003, this in spite of the rapid increase in population. In the words of Dantwala, Green Revolution has given a breathing time. As a result, there will be relief from anxiety of food shortage and the planners will concentrate more on Indian planning.

4. Capitalistic Farming:

Big farmers having more than 10 hectares of land have tended to get the maximum benefit from Green Revolution technology by investing large amount of money in various inputs like HYV seeds, fertilizers, machines, etc. This has encouraged capitalistic farming.

5. Ploughing back of profit:

The introduction of Green Revolution helped the farmers in raising their level of income. Wiser farmers ploughed back their surplus income for improving agricultural productivity. This led to further improvement in agriculture. According to a study conducted by Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana farmers plough back about 55 per cent of their income for agricultural progress.

6. Industrial Growth:

Green Revolution brought about large scale farm mechanisation which created demand for different types of machines like tractors, harvestors, threshers, combines, diesel engines, electric motors, pumping sets, etc. Besides, demand for chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, weedicides, etc. also increased considerably.

Consequently, industries producing these items progressed by leaps and bounds. Moreover, several agricultural products are used as raw materials in various industries. These industries are known as agro based industries. Textile, sugar, vanaspati, etc. are some outstanding examples of agro based industries.

7. Rural Employment:

While on one hand, large scale unemployment was feared due to mechanization of farming with the introduction of Green Revolution technology in India, there was an appreciable increase in the demand for labour force due to multiple cropping and use of fertilizers.

According to Gobind Thukral, “Green Revolution has generated lakhs of new jobs in Punjab. Almost 15 lakh poor people from the impoverished regions of Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh and Orissa work here. They not only earn their bread and butter, but take back home new ideas and technology”.

As per findings of Bhalla and Chadha in respect of Punjab, “The drive towards mechanization was caused mainly by the scarcity of labour and relatively high wage rate especially during peak agricultural operations.” During the last few years, a large number of farm labours have migrated from Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh to Punjab where they find better opportunities of earning a livelihood.

8. Change in the Attitude of Farmers:

The Indian farmer had remained illiterate, backward and traditional and had been using conventional methods of cultivation since the early times. But Green Revolution has brought about a basic change in his attitude towards farming. The way he has readily adopted the Green Revolution technology has exploded the myth that the Indian farmer is basically tradition bound and does not use new methods and techniques.

Wolf Ladejinsky has rightly concluded that, “Where the ingredients for new technology are available, no farmer denies their effectiveness. The desire for better farming methods and a better standard of living is growing not only among the relatively small number of affluent farmers using the new technology, but also among countless farmers still from outside looking in.”

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