Despite some apparent benefits of photorespiration, several taxa of plants have evolved strategies that minimize photorespiration. These additional pathways for carbon fixation evolved in plants growing under high light conditions with limited water resources and took advantage of proteins from other primary metabolic processes, co-opting them for a new purpose. These pathways existin addition to the process of photosynthetic carbon reduction already described, serving to concentrate CO2 for incorporation by Rubisco rather than operating instead of Rubsico.