(a) "The outward electric flux due to charge +Q is independent of the shape and size of the surface which encloses is." Give two reasons to justify this
statement. (b) Two identical circular loops '1' and '2' of radius R each have linear charge densities −λ and +λ C/m respectively. The loops are placed coaxially with their centres R3 distance apart. Find the magnitude and direction of the net electric field at the centre of loop '1'.