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The wheel.....
We've all heard the expression "no need to reinvent the wheel," meaning that a solution already exists for the problem at hand. This saying has added significance when you consider the many ways in which the wheel improved human life, and how long mankind lived without it

Sure, the wheel was probably a literal lifesaver for ancient humans, but you can't hunt a boar by sticking a wheel in its side, and you'll have a hard time skinning a pelt from a bear by running a wheel over it. As Crocodile Dundee would say, "That's not a knife."

Let's start with the first breakthrough when it came to human fashion: We lost our fur. Sure, bare skin is all the rage these days, but it wasn't always the style. Researchers now suggest that humans might have developed a less Robin Williams-type look around a million years ago.

Now that we have wheels, blades and clothes, what were early humans to do with all our cool stuff? Just carry it around all day? No. We needed one more breakthrough to make life a little easier, if not actually save human existence. (Also, disclosure: None of those discoveries happened in that order.)

sewage dispsal..,\
Let's fast-forward to more modern times for our next lifesaving breakthrough. When the British Medical Journal asked a group of experts and readers what the greatest scientific advancement in the last 150 years was, the answer wasn't open-heart surgery or the find-my-phone app on smartphones.

water purification............
Speaking of contaminated water, drinking the stuff can lead to a miserable bout of stomach pain and loose bowels, as many of us who've traveled in the developing world can attest. But water-related illnesses do more than just ruin trips. As the World Health Organization reported in 2005, such diseases are the world's leading cause of death,

We don't know the identity of the experimenter or experimenters in the Acheulian culture in Africa who discovered how to start, control and use fire about 790,000 years ago. 

agricultural crops........
If we didn't have farms to produce food for us, we'd all have to spend much of our time gathering wild plants and stalking animals to survive, the way primitive hunter-gatherers did thousands of years ago. Hunting and gathering isn't necessarily a bad way to go.

For most of human history, virtually everyone on the planet faced the risk of dying in epidemics of bacterial diseases that sometimes ravaged multiple continents. One such disease, bubonic plague -- the "Black Death" -- killed an estimated 200 million people in the 14th century alone 

Food Preservation.......
The cans of refried beans in your pantry might seem like a humble advance in civilization, but there's a reason civil defense officials advise everyone to keep a supply.

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