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What is irrigation? Describe two methods of irrigation which conserve water.

NCERT Class 8th Science Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management


Irrigation is the watering of land to make it ready for agriculture. If you want to start a strawberry farm in the desert, irrigation will be necessary. Irrigation comes from the Latin for "moist" or "wet," but it means the purposeful wetting of something.

two systems:
1. Sprinkler System: This system is more useful on the uneven land where water is available in smaller quantity. The perpendicular pipes, having rotating nozzles on the top, are joined to he main pipeline at regular intervals. When the water is allowed to flow through the main pipe with the help of a pump, it escapes from the rotating nozzles. It is sprinkled on the crop as if it is raining. Sprinkler is very useful for the sandy soil

Drip System: In this system, the water falls drop by drop just at the position of the roots. So, it is called drip system. It is the best technique of watering fruit plants, gardens and trees. This system consists of a main pipe to which lateral pipes are joined. The specially prepared nozzles are attached to these lateral pipes. The nozzles are grounded just near the roots of the plants. It provides water to plants drop by drop. Water is not wasted at all. So, it is a boon in regions where availability of water is poor. 
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Irrigation is the method of providing appropriate amount of water to crops in an agricultural farm/field for their proper growth.

Two methods of irrigation which save water can include:
(i) Sprinkler Irrigation Method
(ii) Drip Irrigation Method.
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