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 "Scientific Revolution" refers to historical changes in thought & belief, to changes in social & institutional organization, that unfolded in Europe between roughly 1550-1700; beginning with Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543), who asserted a heliocentric (sun-centered) cosmos, it ended with Isaac Newton (1642-1727), who proposed universal laws and a Mechanical Universe.


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The scientific revolution was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed views of society and nature.

The scientific revolution was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology(including human anatomy) and chemistrytransformed views of society and nature. The scientific revolution began in Europe towards the end of theRenaissance period and continued through the late 18th century, influencing the intellectual social movement known as the Enlightenment. While its dates are disputed, the publication in 1543 of Nicolaus Copernicus's De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) is often cited as marking the beginning of the scientific revolution.

A first phase of the scientific revolution, focused on the recovery of the knowledge of the ancients, can be described as theScientific Renaissance and is considered to have ended in 1632 with publication ofGalileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems.The completion of the scientific revolution is attributed to the "grand synthesis" of Isaac Newton's 1687 Principia, that formulated the laws of motion anduniversal gravitation.By the end of the 18th century, the scientific revolution had given way to the "Age of Reflection".

The concept of a scientific revolution taking place over an extended period emerged in the eighteenth century in the work of Jean Sylvain Bailly, who saw a two-stage process of sweeping away the old and establishing the new.

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