Genetic engineering alters the genetic make-up of an organism using techniques that remove heritable material or that introduce DNA prepared outside the organism either directly into the host or into a cell that is then fused or hybridized with the host.This involves using recombinent nuclic acid  (DNA or RNA) techniques to form new combinations of heritable genetic material followed by the incorporation of that material either indirectly through a vector system or directly through micro injection, macro-injection and micro encapsulation techniques.
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An organism that is altered by genetic engineering is a genetically modified organism (GMO). The first GMOs were bacteria in 1973; GM mice were made in 1974. Insulin-producing bacteria were commercialized in 1982. Genetically modified food has been sold since 1994, including crops.