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We draw horizontal circles parallel to the equator. These are called latitudes. The equator is a latitude at 0 deg. These circles give the position of a location in the north-south direction.

We draw vertical circles around the Earth. These are called the longitudes. At the same longitude, we have the same time zone.
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LATITUDES- the latitude of a place is the angular distance of that place north or south of the equator measured from the centre of the earth. it is measured in degrees , each degree is further divided into 60 minutes and each minute is further divided into 60 seconds. All latitudes in the northern hemisphere are denoted by letter N while the latitudes in the southern hemisphere are denoted by letter S.

LONGITUDES-  the longitude of a place is the angular distance of that place east or west of the prime meridian. it is measured along the parallel that passes through that place . like latitude it is also measured in degrees, minutes and seconds. All longitudes to the east of the prime meridian are denoted by the letter E while the longitudes to the west of the prime meridian is denoted by the letter W.

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