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Could you state the main features of the 'cold weather season','hot weather season','retreating monsoon' and 'advancing monsoon' of India.


1. The cold weather season begins from mid- November in northern India and stays 
till February. 
2. December and January are the coldest months in the northern part of India. 
3. The temperature decreases from south to the north. 
4. Days are warm and nights are cold. 
5. Frost is common in the north and the higher slopes of Himalayas experience 
6. The northeast trade winds blow from land to sea and hence, for most part of the 
country, it is a dry season. 
7. Some amount of rainfall occurs on the Tamil Nadu coast from these winds as, 
here they blow from sea to land. 
8. The weather is normally marked by clear sky, low temperatures and low humidity 
and feeble variable winds. 
9. A characteristic feature of the cold weather season over the northern plains is a 
the inflow of cyclonic disturbances from the west and the northwest. 
10.They cause the much- needed winter rains over the plains and snowfall in the 
11.Total amount of winter rainfall locally known as ‘mahawat’ is small; they are of . immense importance for the cultivation of ‘rabi’ crops. 
12. The peninsular region does not have well- defined cold season. 


1. From March to May, it is hot weather season in India. 
2. The influence of shifting of the heat belt can be seen clearly from temperature 
recordings taken during March- May at different latitudes. 
3. In peninsular India, temperature remain lower due to the moderating influence of the 
4.The summer months experience rising temperature and falling air pressure in the 
northern part of the country. 
5. Towards the end of May, an elongated low pressure area develops in the region 
extending from the Thar Desert in the northwest to Patna and Chotanagpur plateau 
and southeast. 
6. The striking feature of the hot weather season is the ‘loo’. These are strong, gusty, hot, dry winds blowing during the day over the north and northwestern India. 
7. Dust storms are very common during the month of May in northern India. These 
storms bring temporary relief as they lower the temperature and may bring light rain 
and cool breeze. 
8. In West Bengal, these storms are known as ‘Kaal Baisakhi’. 
9. Towards the close of the summer season, pre- monsoon showers are common 
especially, in Kerala and Karnataka. 

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The cold weather season starts from nov and ends only after  feb. the avg temp of chennai on the eastern coast is between 24-25 deg c frost is common in the north .during the season the northeast trade winds prevailover the country .they blow from sea to land and hence for some partsit will be summer. some amount of  rainfall occurs on tamil nadu coastfrom thesewinds as here they blow from sea to land .a charectristc feature of cold weather season over the northern plains is the inflow of cyclonic disturbances from the west and the northwestern. these low presure system originate over mediterranean sea and western asia and move into india along with the westerly flow.
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