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Drift speed of electrons is the average speed of
electrons over the length of a conductor when a potential difference is applied
to the ends of the conductor. The electrons move under the influence of
electric and magnetic effects of atoms and particles inside conductor.

Let A be cross section of a conductor wire of length L. Let its resistivity be ρ. Let a current I flow through it. Let V be voltage difference across the conductor. R be the resistance of wire.

Let T be the temperature of the wire. Let α be the thermal coefficient of resistance. Let e be the charge on an electron. Let there be n electrons per unit volume of the conductor. Let m be mass of the wire. Let M be molar mass of the conductor. Letd be volume density of the conductor.

N = Avogadro number (number of atoms in a mole of the conductor).

Let us say that there are f free electrons in each atom.

I = current flowing across the wire = number of charged particles * their charge crossing a particular cross section P' of wire in one second.

Suppose an electron travels (on an average) x meters in t seconds. Then average drift speed v of an electron is x/t meters/sec.

Let us take volume x * A to one side of P'. All the electrons in the volume x * A will cross P' in t seconds.

So the charge crossing P' in one second is = I = x*A*n * e / t

I = n A e v or v = I / (n A e)

Resistivity of a conductor = ρ = ρ₀ (1+αT) taking into account the thermal

increase of resistance.

Resistance of a conductor = R = ρL / A = ρ₀ (1+α T) L / A

current = I = V/R = V / [ ρ₀ L (1+α T) L / A ] = V A / [ ρ₀ L (1+α T)]

n = electron density = N atoms * f free electrons per atom / molar volume

= N f / (M/d) = N f d / M

So__drift velocity____ __= v
= I / n A e = {V A / [ρ₀ L (1+αT) ] } / (N f d /M) (A) e

v = V M / N f d e [ρ₀ L (1+αT) ]

Let A be cross section of a conductor wire of length L. Let its resistivity be ρ. Let a current I flow through it. Let V be voltage difference across the conductor. R be the resistance of wire.

Let T be the temperature of the wire. Let α be the thermal coefficient of resistance. Let e be the charge on an electron. Let there be n electrons per unit volume of the conductor. Let m be mass of the wire. Let M be molar mass of the conductor. Letd be volume density of the conductor.

N = Avogadro number (number of atoms in a mole of the conductor).

Let us say that there are f free electrons in each atom.

I = current flowing across the wire = number of charged particles * their charge crossing a particular cross section P' of wire in one second.

Suppose an electron travels (on an average) x meters in t seconds. Then average drift speed v of an electron is x/t meters/sec.

Let us take volume x * A to one side of P'. All the electrons in the volume x * A will cross P' in t seconds.

So the charge crossing P' in one second is = I = x*A*n * e / t

I = n A e v or v = I / (n A e)

Resistivity of a conductor = ρ = ρ₀ (1+αT) taking into account the thermal

increase of resistance.

Resistance of a conductor = R = ρL / A = ρ₀ (1+α T) L / A

current = I = V/R = V / [ ρ₀ L (1+α T) L / A ] = V A / [ ρ₀ L (1+α T)]

n = electron density = N atoms * f free electrons per atom / molar volume

= N f / (M/d) = N f d / M

So

v = V M / N f d e [ρ₀ L (1+αT) ]