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the gravitational force F F is directly proportional to the product of the masses of the body Fαm₁m₂...(i) F is inversly proportional to the square of the distance betwen them. Fα1/d²...(ii) from (i) and (ii) Fαm₁m₂/d² so F=Gm₁m₂/d²...[G is the universal gravitational constant.]

We know that according to Newton's law of gravitation, all objects in the universe attract each other. F is directly proportional to masses of the two objects.......(i) F is inversely proportional to the distance between the two objects......(ii) From (i) and (ii) we can say that F is directly proportional to mass of two objects/the square of distance between them. We know that in order to change a proportionate sign to equal to sign, we need to add a constant {[Here, G]} => F= Gm1m2/r^2(where m1 and m2 are the masses of two objects and r is thedistance between them.)