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2014-10-04T17:08:18+05:30

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Here I give an essay on the ecosystem and its description.

An ecosystem is one community consisting of living organisms in a non-living environment.  Living organisms (biotic components) are animals, plants, microbes etc.  Environment (not biological or abiotic components) includes soil, soil minerals, nitrogen, water, air etc. All these components interact with one another as a system in total.   These interactions and their effect on the total ecosystem on the Earth are of interest to us and to scientists.
  
     The nutrient cycles and energy flows in the ecosystem involve the living and non-living components. A lake can be treated as an ecosystem or India as a country or even the entire Earth can be studied as an ecosystem. Through these interactions, energy and matter flow through the ecosystem in cycles.
 
      Energy comes into our ecosystem from the Sun through photosynthesis by plants.  Plants absorb carbon, nutrients and nitrogen from soil or atmosphere and releases oxygen into atmosphere. Animals feed on plants and on other weaker animals. Dead organic matter is decomposed by bacteria, fungi and worms. Carbon and other nutrients are released back into atmosphere and soil respectively. They are converted to their original form in the atmosphere and soil.  So the plants and microbes use these nutrients again.
 
        The ecosystems are dynamic. They are periodically perturbed by disturbances and recover from them slowly in time.  Climate, parent material (underlying geological material) of the soil, time, new non-native species and topography (terrain, location, geography) are the external factors influence and control the ecosystem at a location. Topography affects local atmosphere, soil development and flow of water through the system.

       Decomposition, root competition and shading are internal factors affect availability of resources within ecosystem. People affect the internal resources and also external factors like climate. Climate in turn affects the ecosystem. More internal factors affecting an ecosystem are biodiversity or the variation in life forms, temporary disturbances and the succession in the gradual evolution of species.

     Energy flows happen as follows.  Primary production of organic matter from inorganic carbon matter occurs through photosynthesis.  Primary consumers or secondary producers are those which consume plants (herbivores).  Microbivores are organisms that feed on microbes (bacteria and fungi). Carnivores feed on primary consumers.  Plants occupy the tropic level 1, herbivores occupy level2 and carnivores occupy level 3 in the food chain (sequence) of the ecosystem. In reality, the sequences form food web rather than a simple sequence of food production and consumption.
 

     Management of natural resources in the entire ecosystem is the ecosystem management.

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Questions and answers:

1. What is an ecosystem?

An ecosystem is one community consisting of living organisms in a non-living environment along with the interactions among these biotic and abiotic components.

2. Give examples of some ecosystems.
      A lake, Indian subcontinent, the ocean-bed , the Earth

3.  What are primary producers?  what are secondary consumers ?
         Plants are primary producers.  Carnivores are secondary consumers.

4. Which organisms are decomposers ?
          Baceria, worms and fungi.

5. Which things flow through the ecosystem ?
         Matter,  food, energy

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2014-10-04T21:05:12+05:30
Physical Factors are simply the things that provide us with our needs indirectly.For example, air is giving us oxygen to breathe. We are not breathing in the air. We are breathing in the oxygen in the air. And then water is providing us with water and food. We are not drinking up the water from seas or oceans diretly. We are purifying it and then consuming it. And the sea creatures in the water are eaten as serafood by non vegetarians. So physical factors are providing us with our daily needs and wants indirectly.
Questions and Answers
1) What are physical factors?
Physical Factors are simply the things that provide us with our needs indirectly.
2)Give some examples of physical factors/
Air and water are examples of physical factors.
3) Explain how air is helping us as a physical factor.
 Air is giving us oxygen to breathe. We are not breathing in the air. We are breathing in the oxygen in the air. 
4) Explain how water is helping us as a physical factor.
 Water is providing us with water and food. We are not drinking up the water from seas or oceans diretly. We are purifying it and then consuming it. And the sea creatures in the water are eaten as seafood by non vegetarians.
5) [EXTRA QUESTION] Name another physical factor and explain why it is a physical factor.
Soil - In the soil, are present many minerals and valuable stones. They help us with our earnings. Plants grow in the soil. Vegetarians are mostly dependent on plants for their food. So soil plays a very important role in the concept of physical factors.


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