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Discovery,sturcture,functions of

1. nucleus
2. mitochindria
3. endoplasmic reticullum ( rough and smoth)
4. ribosomes
5. golgi bodies


Nucleus was discovered by Robert Brown in 1831.Nucleus is the metabolic center of eukaryotes and for prokaryotes It is genophore.Nucleus is dynamic center of cell.Nucleus regulates growth and reproduction of cell

Mitochondria are filamentous or granular cytoplasmic organelles.Each mitochondria consists of two membranes-Outer membrane and inner membrane.
Mitochondria are called Semiautonomous organells.They show a degree of independence in their functioning,but they are not fully autonomous because their structure and functioning are partially controlled by nucleus and availability of materials from cytoplasm.Mitochondria are the main sites of cell respiration.Energy is synthasized and stored in the form of ATP.

These are tube like or filamentous structures.These are discovered by CLAUDE.Endoplasmic reticulam with ribosomes is called Rough endoplasmic reticulam.Endoplasmic reticulam without ribosomes is called smooth endoplasmic reticulam.ER is useful in the intracellular transport of materials.It forms the Cells circulatory system.

Ribosomes sre pear or heart shaped cell organelles.These are smallest cell organelles.These are described by Palade.Ribosomes are involved in protein synthesis.


These are called Dictosomes in plantcells.These are discovered by Camillo Golgi in Nerve cells of Barn owl.These cells are involved insecretions.These are involved in the secretion of proteins.It is the seat of formation of acrosome in sperms are Golgicompiex.If golgicomplex are absent,the proteins accumulate in the cells exerting toxic effect to the cell and eventually leading to the death of the cell.
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