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I will write information on a few optical  devices.  please add your description.

For each device,  please show a diagram,  its working principle,  formulas for the device, how the device is used in real life.

A. Spherical mirrors
1.  concave mirror
          used as reflectors of light  by a dentist - doctor.
          in some physics experiments, to measure deflection.
          car/vehicle head lights
          shaving mirror

2.  parabolic reflector mirror 
            It is used in reflective telescopes;

3.  convex mirror 
       used in rear view mirrors on vehicles, in super markets, junctions, etc,
       in some instruments, to be able to see behind of some parts inside the devices.

4. plane mirrors
         make-up table , bath rooms

5.   in place of walls on buildings, for cooling
B Lenses 

1. Double convex lenses
2. Double concave lenses
3. Plano-convex lenses
4. plano concave lenses
5. concave-convex lens
6. spherical lenses

      used in spectacles worn to correct  defects in the eyes

  convex lenses are 
      used in telescopes,  microscopes.
      there are astronomical telescopes
      terrestrial telescopes  -   to watch  sports matches, 
      still cameras ,  video cameras, 
     Lenses are used in movie projectors, over head slide projectors

C. Cameras

         prismatic cameras use prisms
          convex lenses are used in normal cameras

D.  prisms  

        used to determine refractive index
        study dispersion of light

E.  kaleido-scope 

F.   computer data storage devices - CD ROM  ..  optical storage devices

G.   Laser devices

H.   optical fibre devices  -  decorative pieces,  telecommunication devices

I.   optical light sensors -   optical detectors,  optical transducers 
                  used in fibre optic telecommunication

J.  lamp shades,  tube lights - to distribute light in a uniform way in the room

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also convex lenses are used as magnifying lenses. many paper weights, beautiful decorative pieces , fancy clocks are made of glass. transparent material used to make fancy phones, house old articles,
I am giving you information about Spherical Mirrors And Lens

 Spherical Mirrors :-
Mirrors, whose reflecting surface are curved inward or outward spherically are called spherical mirror.For example - Spoon
 The curved surface of shinning spoon can be considered as curved mirror.If it is curved inward Act as concave mirror.If it is curved outward Act as a convex mirror.
Uses of Concave Mirror
1. Used in torches, search light and headlight of vehicle.
2. Used to see large image of face as shaving mirror
3. Used by dentist to see large images of the teeth
4. Large concave mirror used to focus sunlight (heat) in solar furnaces.

Uses of Convex Mirror
1. Used as rear-view mirror in vehicles because it gives erect image. It also helps the driver to view large area.

Sign Convention for Reflection by Spherical Mirror
1. The object is always placed to the left side of mirror.
2. All distance should be measured from pole (P); parallel to principal axis.
3. Take 'P' as origin. Distances measured
Right of the origin (+ x - Axis) are taken positive
Left of the origin (– x-Axis) are taken negative
Perpendicular to and above principal axis (+y-Axis) are taken positive
Perpendicular to and below principal axis (–y-Axis) are taken negative

Principal axis of the spherical mirror
The straight line joining the pole (P) and the centre of curvature (C) is termed as the principal axis.

The focus (F) is the point on the principal axis of a spherical mirror where all the incident rays parallel to the principal axis meet or appears to diverge from after reflection. For concave mirrors, the focus lies on the same side of the reflecting surface.

Pole of a spherical mirror
The central point of the reflecting surface of a spherical mirror is termed as the pole. It lies on the mirror and is denoted by the letter (P).

Centre of curvature
 The centre of curvature as the centre of a sphere from which the given spherical mirror (convex or concave) is obtained. It is denoted by the letter (C).

Secondary axis:-
Any straight line other than the principal axis passing through the centre of a spherical mirror is referred to as secondary axis. It is usually represented by letters SS’ .

Aperture of a mirror:-
 Aperture of a mirror is the portion of a mirror from which reflection of light takes place. In other words it is the maximum size of a mirror. It is usually represented by letter M and M/ .


Spherical Lens
A transparent material bound by two surface, of which one or both surfaces are spherical, forms a lens.

Convex Lens
A lens may have two spherical surfaces, bulging outwards, is called double convex lens (or simply convex lens.It is also known as converging lens because it converges the light.

Concave Lens
A lens bounded by two spherical surfaces, curved inwards is known as double concave lens (or simply concave lens)It is also known as diverging lens because it diverges the light.

Sign Convention for Refraction by spherical lens
Similar to that of spherical mirror, only the difference is that all the measurement are made from optical centre 'O'

Power of Lens
The degree of convergence or divergence of light ray achieved by a lens is known as power of a lens.It is difined as the reciprocal of its focal length Represented by P.

Centre of curvature -
A lens, either a convex lens or a concave lens has two spherical surfaces. Each of these surfaces form a part of sphere. The centre ofthese two spheres are called centre of curvature represented by C1 and C2

Principal axis -
Imaginary straight line passing through the two centres of curvature

Optical Centre -
The central point of lens is its optical centre (O). A ray of light, when passes through 'O' it remains undeviated i.e. it goes straight.

Aperture -
 The effective diameter of the circular outline of a spherical lens.

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