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On MOM,  Mars Orbiter Mission:

     There are high gain, medium gain and low gain antennas for communication.  There is a reflector that receives signals and transmits (waves) signals towards Earth.  A transponder electronic instrument communicates with master control facility of ISRO, via a TWT amplifier and an antenna array.  Transponder processes the data (binary) and processes it.  Amplifier increases the amplitude of analog signal received.  Antennas collect electrical signal energy in space incident on them, and generate voltage (current) pulses in the circuit depending on the signal amplitude and frequency.


On Earth , at the ground control station (Earth station), there will be a huge dish antenna of radius 10 meters or so, to send signals to MOM and to receive them.  These signals are generated by electronic instruments at the station. The data is generated by programmed computer controlled automation circuits.

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