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Terminal voltage is the voltage output measured across its terminals of a voltage source.(a single battery can be considered as a voltage source).

Where V = terminal voltage

EMF = electromotive force

I = current flowing in the circuit

R = internal resistance of the source

Ideally, terminal voltage, V should be equal to EMF(R=0), but since every battery has some resistance of its own, V is not equal to EMF.

The more the internal resistance of a source, the more is the difference between the terminal voltage and the EMF.

Where V = terminal voltage

EMF = electromotive force

I = current flowing in the circuit

R = internal resistance of the source

Ideally, terminal voltage, V should be equal to EMF(R=0), but since every battery has some resistance of its own, V is not equal to EMF.

The more the internal resistance of a source, the more is the difference between the terminal voltage and the EMF.