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Napoleon was born on the island of Corsica to a relatively modest family of noble Italian ancestry. From 1789, Napoleon supported the Revolution and tried to spread its ideals to Corsica, but he was banished from the island in 1793. In 1795, he saved the French government from collapse by firing on the Parisian mobs with cannons, an event known as the 13 Vendémiaire. The Directoryappointed him as General of the Army of Italy at age 26. After marrying Joséphine de Beauharnais in March 1796, he started theItalian military campaign that transformed him into a well-known figure in Europe. In 1798 he launched a military expedition to Egypt, conquering the Ottoman province with a decisive victory at the Battle of the Pyramids and facilitating the rise of modern Egyptology.The Directory collapsed when Napoleon and his supporters engineered a coup in November 1799. He was installed as First Consulof the Consulate and progressively extended his personal control over France. An important victory over the Austrians at the Battle of Marengo in 1800 cemented his political power. The Consulate witnessed a number of achievements for Napoleon, such as theConcordat of 1801 with the Catholic Church and the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. In 1804, the Senate declared him the Emperor of the French, setting the stage for the French Empire. Intractable differences with the British meant by 1805 the French were facing aThird Coalition. Napoleon shattered this coalition with decisive victories in the Ulm Campaign and a historic triumph at the Battle of Austerlitz. The Peace of Pressburg culminated in the elimination of the millennial Holy Roman Empire. In October 1805, however, a combined Franco-Spanish fleet was destroyed at the Battle of Trafalgar, allowing Britain to impose a naval blockade of the French coasts. In retaliation, Napoleon established the Continental System in 1806 to cut off European trade with Britain and the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him. The French crushed the Prussians at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt in October 1806, while in June 1807 Napoleon annihilated another Russian army at the Battle of Friedland. This forced the Russians to the peace table, with the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, often regarded as the high watermark of the French Empire.Napoleon tried to compel Portugal to follow the Continental System by sending an army into Iberia. In 1808, he declared his brotherJoseph Bonaparte the King of Spain, which precipitated the outbreak of the Peninsular War, widely noted for its brutal guerrilla warfare. In 1809 the Austrians launched another attack against the French. Napoleon defeated them at the Battle of Wagram, dissolving the Fifth Coalition formed against France. After the Treaty of Schönbrunn in the fall of 1809, he divorced Josephine and married Austrian princess Marie Louise in 1810. By 1811, Napoleon ruled over 70 million people across an empire that had near-total domination in Europe, which had not witnessed this level of political consolidation since the days of the Roman Empire.[7] He maintained his strategic status through a series of alliances and family appointments to royal households. Napoleon launched a new aristocracy in France while allowing for the return of nobles who had been forced into exile by the Revolution.Escalating tensions over the existence of a Polish State and the Continental System led to renewed enmity with Russia. To enforce his blockade, Napoleon launched an invasion of Russia in 1812 that ended in catastrophic failure for the French. In 1813, Prussia and Russia joined forces to fight France, and the Austrians also joined the Sixth Coalition. In October 1813, a large Allied army defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig. The next year, the Allies launched an invasion of France and captured Paris, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April 1814. He was exiled to the island of Elba. The Bourbons were restored to power and the French lost most territories they had conquered since the Revolution. However, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and returned to lead the French government, only to find himself at war against another coalition. This new coalition decisively defeated him at theBattle of Waterloo in June. He attempted to flee to the United States, but the British blocked his escape route. He surrendered to British custody and spent the last six years of his life in confinement on the remote island of Saint Helena. His death in 1821, at the age of 51, was received by shock and grief throughout Europe and the New World.
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Children constitute principle assets of any country.  Children’s Development is as important as the development of material resources and the best way to develop national human resources is to take care of children.  India has the largest child population in the world.  All out efforts are being made by India for the development and welfare of children.  Significant progress has been made in many fields in assuring children their basic rights.  However, much remains to be done.  The country renews its commitment and determination to give the highest priority to the basic needs and rights of all children.  Children are most vulnerable to exploitation and abuse.  A lot more has to be done for the health, nutrition and education of children.  It is unfortunate that girls in particular face debilitating discrimination at all stages.  Therefore, specific concentration is being given to the efforts to improve the life and opportunities of the Girl Child. Constitutional ProvisionsThere are several constitutional provisions for children.  These include the following.·     Article 14 provides that the State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India. ·      Article 15(3) provides that, “Nothing in this article shall prevent the State for making any special provision for women and children.”·      Article 21 provide that no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.·      Article 21A directs the State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.·      Article 23 prohibits trafficking of human beings and forced labour.·      Article 24 prohibits employment of children below the age of fourteen years in factories, mines or any other hazardous occupation.·      Article 25-28 provides freedom of conscience, and free profession, practice and propagation of religion. ·      Article 39(e) and (f) provide that the State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing to ensure that the health and strength of workers, men and women and the tender age of children are not abused and that the citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength and that the children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that the childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.·     Article 45 envisages that the State shall endeavor to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years. LegislationsThere are several Legislations pertaining to children.  These include the following.1.         The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929.2.          The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986.3.          The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000.4.          The Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Foods (Regulation of Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 1992.5.        The Pre-Conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Technique(Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994.6.         The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995.7.          The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956.8.          The Guardian and Wards Act, 1890.9.          The Young Persons (Harmful Publications) Act, 1956.10.        The Commissions for Protection of Child Rights Act, 200
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