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Why does a spanner have a long handle?the mats used in gyms and the padding used in sports uniforms are made up of soft substances.why are rigid materials

not used?



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A spanner has a long handle because we want the moment of force to be high.  The moment is equal to the force * the arm length.  The arm length is the distance between the pivot or or the bolt or the screw,    and the hands. 

If the handle is long, less force is needed to  turn the bolts..

In gyms  the padding used is soft.  We want that any pressure or force or weight applied on the person does not damage the person.   The softness of materials absorbs some force by compression like in a spring.  Then the force is releases slowly.  This will result in less impact on the sports person.

When a person jumps up and lands on a soft mat, the person feels some spring like effect under the feet.  Otherwise, the reaction force from the floor will damage the feet and ankles.

if the mats and the padding are hard like steel, then they are heavy, and the force or impact of any force is directly transmitted to the person's body.  That will damage the person.

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Spanner has long handle as the torque produced in rotating it is large even for small force applied as torque= force * perpendicular length
soft substances are used to reduce the rate of change of momentum of the people when they fall etc. this is because of Newton s second law
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