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The guard cells controls the opening and closing of stomata.The various factors to which the guard cells respond translates into the complexity of the network of signaling pathways that control stomatal movements
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The guard cell is responsible for controlling the size of the stomata in leaves. These do so as a result of an interaction between potassium ions and water in and around the cells. This makes the guard cells turgid which in turn stretches them and results in the opening of the stomata.. Water from inside the cell moves out, making the guard cells flaccid, thus causing these to cover (and effectively close) the stomata.
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The opening and closing of the stomata is regulated by the kidney-shaped guard cell, surrounding the stomata.
It happens due to the turgor changes that takes place in the guard cell. When the guard cells become turgid, the stomata is closed and vice-versa.

Some of the factors responsible for it are:
3.CO₂ Concentration.
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