«Government of the people, by the people, for the people»
Democracy is by far the most challenging form of government -
both for politicians and for the people. The term democracy
comes from the Greek language and means
"rule by the (simple) people".
The so-called "democracies" in classical antiquity
(Athens and Rome) represent precursors of modern democracies.
Like modern democracy, they were created as a reaction to
a concentration and abuse of power by the rulers. Yet the theory
of modern democracy was not formulated until the Age of Enlightment
(17th/18th centuries), when philosophers
defined the essential elements of democracy:
separation of powers, basic civil rights / human rights,
religious liberty and separation of church and state