I don't think if there is any experiment. but yes you can understand it by the examples of green plants and non-green plants. ie green plants make their own food using photosynthesis process and non-green plants such as mushrooms depends on other nutrients for food
Aim: to show that plants need sunlight 4 their growth
Materials required:
1)a green healthy plant
2)a black cloth
Procedure :
1) take a plant and put it in sunlight for some time
2)Now wrap a black cloth on a leaf and leave it in sunlight
Observation:We notice that the portion which is wrapped with the cloth is less green than the others Also the leaf will soon die
Conclusion: this experiment shows that for plants photosynthesis is an important step and without photosynthesis plants will die