The Silicon Valley of India is a nickname of the Indian city of Bangalore. The name signifies Bangalore's status as a hub for information technology (IT) companies in India and is a comparative reference to the original Silicon Valley, based around Santa Clara Valley, California, a major hub for IT companies in the United States. Bangalore, however, is located on a plateau and not in a valley; the use of the term in reference to Bangalore is not truly toponymous. One of earliest mentions of this sobriquet occurred in late 1980s in the Indian Express. The more prevalent application of the nickname Bangalore began in the 1990s based on a concentration of firms specialising in Research and Development (R&D), electronics and software production.