Several factors flowed together to create the unexpected development ofcivilization. While the establishment of agriculture did not guarantee furtherchange, it did ultimately co tribute to change by encouraging new forms ofsocial organization. Settled agriculture, as opposed to slash-and-burnvarieties, usually implied some forms of property so that land could beidentified as belonging to a family, a village, or a landlord. Only withproperty was there incentive to introduce improvements, such as wells orirrigation measures, that could be monopolized by those who created them orleft to their heirs. But property meant the need for new kinds of laws andenforcement mechanisms, which in turn implied more extensive government. Hereagriculture could create some possibilities for trade and could spurinnovation - new kinds of regulations and some government figures who couldenforce them.
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