A heavy metal contained in barite. Used as a heavy additive in oil well drilling; in the paper and rubber industries; as a filler or extender in cloth, ink and plastics products; in radiography ("barium milkshake"); as a deoxidizer for copper; a sparkplug in alloys; and in making expensive white pigments.
Rock composed of hydrated aluminum oxides. In the U.S., it is primarily converted to alumina. See "aluminum." The U.S. was 100 percent import reliant in 2012.
Used in the nuclear industry and to make light, very strong alloys used in the aircraft industry. Beryllium salts are used in fluorescent lamps, in X-ray tubes and as a deoxidizer in bronze metallurgy. Beryl is the gem stones emerald and aquamarine. It is used in computers, telecommunication products, aerospace and defense applications, appliances and automotive and consumer electronics. Also used in medical equipment. The U.S. was 10 percent import reliant in 2012.
The U.S. consumes about 6 percent of world chromite ore production in various forms of imported materials, such as chromite ore, chromite chemicals, chromium ferroalloys, chromium metal and stainless steel. Used as an alloy and in stainless and heat resisting steel products. Used in chemical and metallurgical industries (chrome fixtures, etc.) Superalloys require chromium. It is produced in South Africa, Kazakhstan and India. The U.S. was 70 percent import reliant for chromium in 2012.
Used primarily in superalloys for aircraft gas turbine engines, in cemented carbides for cutting tools and wear-resistant applications, chemicals (paint dryers, catalysts, magnetic coatings) and permanent magnets. The United States has cobalt resources in Minnesota, Alaska, California, Idaho, Missouri, Montana and Oregon. Cobalt production comes principally from Congo, China, Canada, Russia, Australia and Zambia. The U.S. was 78 percent import reliant in 2012.
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