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Hydroponics are also called hydroculture,it's a method of growing plants in liquid medium using mineral and nutrients.
1)no soil is needed.
2)It uses water which can be reused,so less water requirement. 
3)no pesticide damage.
1)Pathogen attacks.
2)it require different fertilisers and containment system.
3)any failure of hydroponics leads to rapid plant death.
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Hydroponics refers to the growth of plants in water and sand media. It is also known as test tube farming, tank farming and soil less agriculture. Commercially hydroponic cultures are maintained in large shallow concrete, cement, wood or metal tanks in which gravel and nutrient solutions are taken. The tanks are provided with pumps and empty auxiliary tanks to pump out and circulate the growth solution and to maintain proper aeration of the nutrient solution. 

possible to provide the desired nutrient environment. The acid-base balance can be easily maintained. Mulching, changing of soil and weeding are eliminated. Proper aeration of nutrient solution is possible. Labour for watering of plants can be avoided. Tilling is not necessary.