Examples ofsources of pollution
Point source or diffuse
Potential pollutant
Effluent discharges from sewage treatment worksPoint sourceNitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P), persistent organic pollutants, pathogens, litter, oxygen depleting substances, suspended solids and settleable solidsIndustrial effluent discharges treatmentPoint sourceN, oxygen-depleting substances and a broad spectrum of chemicals, suspended solids etc.Industrial processesPoint sourceBroad spectrum of chemicals released to air and waterOil storage facilitiesPoint sourceHydrocarbonsUrban stormwater dischargesPoint source -arising from storm water runoff (from paved areas and roofs in towns and cities) entering the sewer networkN, P, oxygen-depleting substances, heavy metals, hydrocarbons pathogens, persistent organic pollutants, suspended solids, settleable solids, litterLandfill sitesPoint sourceN, ammonia, oxygen- depleting substances, broad spectrum of chemicals
Fish farmingPoint sourceN, P, oxygen-depleting substances, pathogens, suspended and settleable solidsPesticide useDiffuseBroad spectrum of chemicalsOrganic waste recycling to landDiffuseN, P, pathogensAgricultural fertilisersDiffuseN, PSoil cultivationDiffuseSoil, N, PPower generation facilitiesDiffuseN, sulphur, mercury, POPs, temperature (thermal) pollutionFarm wastes and silagePoint/DiffuseN, P, oxygen-depleting substances, pathogens, suspended and settleable solidsContaminated landPoint/DiffuseHydrocarbons, organic chemicals, heavy metals, oxygen-depleting substancesMiningPoint/DiffuseHeavy metals, acid mine drainage, suspended and settleable solidsLeaking pipelinesPoint/DiffuseOil, sewage, hydrocarbonsDomestic plumbing misconnectionsPoint source - connection of domestic appliances and toilets to rainwater drainsP, oxygen-depleting substances, pathogens, suspended and settleable solids, N
Point source pollution is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as “any single identifiable source of pollution from which pollutants are discharged, such as a pipe...” Examples of point sources include: discharges from wastewater treatment plants;