At the dawn of civilization two distinct civilizations appeared in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley: theSumerians and the Harappans. The Sumerians settled in the valleys between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, aland known as Mesopotamia, the area known today as Kuwait and Iraq. One of the most important cities of thiscivilization was Ur. Ur is the city from which God called Abram as mentioned in Genesis 11:31(“Abram…setout from Ur”) and Nehemiah 9:7, “You are the LORD God, who chose Abram and brought him out of Ur of theChaldeans and named him Abraham”. Concurrently, in the area that is now Pakistan, part of Afghanistan andNorthern India the Harappan civilization appeared in the flood plain of the Indus and Hakra rivers. Its two mostimportant cities were Mojeno-doro and Harappa. The Sumerian and Harappan economies developed alongsimilar lines, and have comparable religious and social structures. Nevertheless their politics, art, treatment of women and intellectual advancements stand in sharp contrast to one another.The Harappans and Sumerians are distinctly different politically.