Pollution is mixing some impurities or waste into a pure substance. It is the adulteration or contamination of natural resources by deliberate human activities. We can also say the presence of unexpected or unwanted substances in a location is also pollution. We are alarmed by the emission or mixing of harmful chemical substances in our daily life. Due to pollution, the nature, environment, Earth, atmosphere, and waters are all becoming degraded. It is a matter of serious concern. Thus, the pollution we debate about is about the man made gradual destruction of what God has provided us to live with. As we see environment and pollution are closely interrelated.
There are many kinds of pollution. They are air, water, land, noise and light pollutions.
Our planet's ecosystem and its cycle is affected by pollution. There are international voluntary organizations that monitor and raise alarms. There is a national level governmental organization and a pollution control board in each state to control the pollution. For awareness among people Earth day and other such days are celebrated world wide.
1. Air pollution
By using oil based vehicles, we are emitting harmful gases in to air. Many manufacturing plants emit harmful gases too. Many people in many countries burn wood, waste and paper causing smoke to rise into the atmosphere. Thus carbon oxides, Sulphur oxides, Flourine and derivatives mix with air. They reduce the proportion of oxygen. ChloroFluoroCarbides and other gases reduce ozone layer and allow more of the dangerous Ultra Violet radiation to pass on to the surface of Earth. Global warming and melting of ice in polar regions and on Himalayas are results of fossil fuel burning etc. Acid rains with sulphuric acid or other contaminants cause harm to people and drinking water reserves. Many people may suffer from T.B. or other diseases by absorbing harmful chemical substances through skin too.
It is probably impossible to eliminate air pollution. To mitigate the risks, we may use LPG, Bio-diesel (green diesel), electric, solar vehicles, bicycles or public transport as much as possible. To regenerate more oxygen and to reduce global warming, we must plant more trees wherever possible. Forests must be grown in many areas (green movements).
Conservation of energy policies, and green building techniques can ultimately reduce less burning of fossil fuels.
2. Water pollution
The drinking water is polluted by chemicals, waste water, plastics, oils, paints, and by the dissolution of gases to which water is exposed to. Adequate arrangements must be made for filtering, removing excess fluorine or radicals and adding minerals in necessary quantities. Swach Bharat program has a program for this.
Further, rivers must be cleaned so that people, who bathe in rivers and drink river water, remain healthy. That is important as a substantial percentage of people use rivers that way in India. Some people throw garbage into rivers. Some factories eject effluents into rivers and seas. Suitable measures to prevent such activities must be made.
Due to air and water pollution, the seasons summer, winter, spring and autumn are occurring over improper durations. Rains are not falling at proper times in sufficient quantities.
Further, various ships travelling on seas, also do cause oil pollution. There is also ocean litter. Many animals and fish could die or acquire chronic diseases. These could pass on to people eating those meat.
3. (Noise) Sound pollution
Noise pollution is use of horns, high volume sounds or music in public places. This is not serious as much as the other factors. When sound is used in higher volumes than required, it impacts the health of people who are forced to hear that. Often on the roads, drivers honk their horns in all kinds of traffic.
4. (Soil) Land pollution:
Due to rains nutrients from farming lands get washed away. Due to environmental pollution or radiation, the soil may get deficient. Improper use of pesticides and fertilizers also causes soil pollution. Ash from nearby factories falls on agricultural lands rendering them non-cultivable. Radiations from nuclear substances can also affect lands.
5. Light pollution
Improper artificial man made lighting near oceans or rivers causes sea animals to falsely change their behaviour.
The essay could be supplemented by adding some photos.