Little is used with uncountable nouns (nouns that cannot be counted), such as milk, time, and money.
A little emphasizes that something still remains.
For examples:
I have little sugar(=I have no sugar)

I have a little sugar(=I have some sugar)sises that something still remains.
Little is used to indicate almost none or used with countable nouns.
For eg. There is little water in the bottle.

A Little indicate at least some.
For eg. She can make some cake as there is a little batter left in the bowl.

The Little indicates the whole, though very little.
For eg. The little soup that was left, was sufficient for his breakfast. 
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