1. Jawaharlal Nehru was
born on 14 November 1889 in Allahabad, British
India. He was born to Motilal Nehru, a wealthy barrister who belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community and mother, Swaruprani Thussu who came from a well-known
Kashmiri Brahmin family was
Motilal's second wife, the first having died in child birth. Jawaharlal was the
eldest of three children, two of whom were girls. In India, his birthday is celebrated as
Children's Day. He was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics. Nehru is considered to be the architect of
the modern Indian nation-state: a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic
republic. He was popularly known as ‘Pandit
Nehru’ or as ‘Panditji’, while
children knew him as ‘Chacha Nehru’. He died in his office in 1964.
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar popularly
known as Babasaheb was born on 14th April,
1891 in Mhow in the Central
Provinces (now in
Madhya Pradesh). He
was the 14th and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal, a ranked army officer at
the post of Subedar and Bhimabai Murbadkar Sakpal. Ambedkar was born into a poor low Mahar (Dalit) caste, which were treated as untouchables and subjected to socio-economic discrimination. In 1906, he
married Ramabai. Since 1948, Ambedkar had
been suffering from diabetes. His health worsened during 1955.
Ambedkar died in his sleep on 6 December 1956 at his home in Delhi.
Alam Kalam Azad was born on 11th November, 1888 in Mecca, Hejaz Vilayet in the
Ottoman Empire (now Saudi Arabia). His real name was Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin
who was also known as Maulana Azad. His father, Maulana Muhammad Khairuddin, a scholar and his mother was an Arab. At the
age of thirteen, he was married to a young Muslim girl, Zulaikha Begum. In 1923 he became the
youngest person to serve as the President of the Indian National Congress. His contribution to
establishing the education foundation in India is recognised by celebrating his
birthday as "National Education Day" across India. He died on
the 22nd of
February, 1958 at the age of 69 in Delhi, India.
Dr. Rajendra Prasad was a Kayastha Hindu and born on 3rd December, 1884 in Zeradai, in the Siwan district of Bihar. His father Mahadev Sahai was a scholar of both
the Sanskrit and Persian languages, while his mother, Kamleshwari Devi, was a religious
woman. When Prasad was five years old, his parents placed him under the
tutelage of a Moulavi, an accomplished Muslim scholar, to learn the Persian language, Hindi and arithmetic. He was sent to the Chapra District School. In June
1896, at an early age of 12, he was married to Rajavanshi Devi. He went to
study at T.K. Ghosh's Academy in Patna. Prasad appeared in the examination of Masters in Law, passed the
examination and won a gold medal. He completed his Doctorate in Law from
Allahabad University in 1937. In 1916, he joined the High Court of
Bihar and Odisha. He died on 28th February, 1963 in Patna, Bihar.
Feroze Jehangir Gandhi was born to a Parsi family at the Tehmulji Nariman
Hospital situated in Fort, Bombay on 12th September, 1912. His
parents, Faredoon Jehangir and Ratimai (formerly Ratimai Commissariat), lived
in Nauroji Natakwala Bhawan in Khetwadi Mohalla in Bombay where his father,
Jehangir Gandhi was a Marine Engineer in Killick Nixon. Feroze was
the youngest of the five children and attended the Vidya Mandir High School and then graduated from the
British-staffed Ewing Christian
College. Feroze first proposed to Indira in 1933, but she and
her mother rejected it, putting forward that she was too young, only 16. In the
following years, Indira and Feroze grew closer to each other while in England.
They married in March 1942 according to Hindu rituals. The
couple had two sons, Rajiv and Sanjay,Feroze
suffered a heart attack in 1958.
Feroze died in 1960 at the Willingdon Hospital, Delhi, after suffering a second heart attack.
Vallabhbhai Patel the iron-man of India was
born on 31st October, 1875, in a small village in Nadiad. His father Jhaverbhai Patel was a simple farmer and mother
Laad Bai was a simple lady. From his childhood itself, Patel was a very
hard-working individual. He studied in N. K. High school, Petlad. He passed his high-school examination in
1896. Throughout school he was a very wise and intelligent student. In spite of
poor financial conditions his father decided to send him to college but
Vallabhbhai refused. He stayed at home, worked hard and
prepared for the District Leader's examination, hence passing with very good
percentage. He got married to Jhaberaba. In 1904, a daughter
Maniben, and in 1905 his son Dahya was born. In 1909 his wife became seriously
ill and was taken to Bombay for treatment but she died. He admitted his
children in St. Mary's school in Bombay. On 15th December,
1950 he died of a cardiac arrest.