(i) Irrigation:Better irrigation facilities are responsible for green revolution. In 1965-66, 22 lakh hectares area had irrigation facility: while 76 lakh hectares area got this facility in year 2002-03. Tube well irrigation has rapidly increased.
(ii) Agricultural Machinery:In Punjab, the agriculture is mechanised. Tractors, harvesting combines, tube wells and pumping sets and threshers etc. are intensively used in Punjab. Punjab has largest number of tractors. In 1966, there were 10 thousand tractors, while in 2002-03, it increased to 3.54 lakhs.
(iii) Fertilizers:The use of chemical fertilizers has increased the production of food grains to large extent. In 1965-66 chemical fertilizers were used 97 thousand tonnes. In 2002-03, their use increased to 1441 thousand tonnes.
(iv) High Yielding Variety of Seeds (HYV):The use of HYV seeds have played major role in increasing agricultural production. For example, per hectare yield of wheat has increased from 1200 kgms to 4500 kgm. In case of rice the yield increased from 1000 kgms to 3500 kgms. So HYV seeds has increased the production tremendously.
(v) Plant Protection:There was no arrangement to protect the plants against disease in previous times. So crops were damaged on large scale. Now there are proper arrangements to protect the plants against diseases and pests. Pesticides are sprayed to protect the plants. Plant clinics are opened to provide expert advice to farmers against diseases.(a) Rapid increase in agricultural production.(b) Maintenance of high level of agricultural production.