The role of teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out at a school or other place of formal education. In many countries, a person who wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified professional qualifications or credentials from auniversity or college. These professional qualifications may include the study ofpedagogy, the science of teaching. Teachers, like other professionals, may have to continue their education after they qualify, a process known as continuing professional development. Teachers may use a lesson plan to facilitate student learning, providing a course of study which is called the curriculum.A teacher's role may vary among cultures. Teachers may provide instruction in literacy and numeracy, craftsmanship orvocational training, the arts, religion, civics, community roles, or life skills.A teacher who facilitates education for an individual may also be described as a personal tutor, or, largely historically, agoverness.