Innovations in Printing technology during 18th, 19th centuries
Printing is basically the making
impressions on a blank paper or cloth, with an inked surface. Mainly we
print pictures and text in colors or black and white.
The industrial revolution and
automation made it possible to print in bulk quickly. In the 19th century
the Gutenberg press (hand operated) was replaced by steam-engine operated
Further the printing flatbed
(vertical printing) action was replaced by rotating cylinders. The
surface of rotating cylinders contained the printed matter. German Friedrich
Koenig invented a number changes in printing press design, in early 19th
century. German engineer Andreas Friedrich Bauer and Koenig sold printing
press to “The Times” in London in 1818, resulting in commercial mass printing.
Richard Hoe from USA perfected
the power driven cylindrical press in 1843. That made it possible for
8000 sheets of paper to be printed in one hour. It was black and white
printing in bulk.
Jabbing presses were later
developed. Then small presses for printing small business cards and
envelopes etc. were invented.
Development of the offset
printing press during the 19th century. So color printing was possible up
to 6 different colors. These were mechanically operated by humans by
running a motor with hands or legs.
Electrically operated motorized printing press
during the 20th century.
Automatic paper reel feeding.
Photo electric controls of the color containers
with injection controls at high speeds.
Perhaps Xeroxing or photocopying is also part of
printing, as it uses some concepts similar to printing.
Desktop publishing is another evolution.
Electronic publishing and Computer printer is
latest one. Now photos are also printed this way.
Composing and printing
Lithography & photolithography.
Photolithography was used in fabrication of integrated micro-electronic
circuits on PCB.