Until 18th century, ppl in the western world did not enjoy the rights to participate in the affairs ofthe govt. And in france this was the case till late 18th cent.. the french Revolution challenged the social and political privileges enjoyed by the aristocrats. During the FR, the middle class, peasants and artisans fought against the dpecial rights enjoyed by the clergy and the nobility. Their belief was that no group in the society shud have privileges based on birth. Rather ppl's social positions must depend on merit, they suggested that there shud be equal laws for all qnd the authority for the govt shud come frm the ppl who must posses the right to participate in its affairs.