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Th aorta which arises from the left ventricle pumps blood to the whole of the body.  This action needs a lot of power. Hence the left ventricle is very thick. The pulmonary artery which arises from the right ventricle pumps the blood into the lungs for oxygenation. But the aorta supplies oxygenated blood to the whole body. Due to this work, the left ventricle is provided with a lot of muscles and hence it is thick.
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The left ventricle needs to be thicker than the right because it needs to pump blood through the entire body. 

The right ventricle only pumps to the lungs to oxygenate the blood 

Hence why the left is thicker, due to needed more muscle to do so