The movement of water through a column of soil is called
percolation. It is important for two reasons.
i) This is the only source of recharge of ground water which can be used through
wells for irrigation
ii) Percolating waters carry plant nutrients down and often out of reach of plant
In dry region it is negligible and under high rainfall it is high
Sandy soils have greater percolation than clayey soil
Vegetation and high water table reduce the percolation loss