In active sentence we have a normal subject - object relation {<someone> VERB <something>} e.g. [Johhny is throwing a ball]. In a passive version of this sentence we change that standard relation the other way around - subject becomes object and object becomes subject. Also, we change the word formation by adding 'to be' before our VERB, changing it accordingly and adding 'by' to indicate the doer. Therefore we have {<something> to be + VERB + by <someone>} [Ball is being thrown by Johhny]


Active eg.rama killed ravana
passive eg.ravana was killed by rama
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active- Columbus discovered America
passive -America was discovered by columbas
active- they must do it at once
passive- it must be done at once
active- shut the door
passive- let the door be shut