Igneous and metamorphic rocks are composed of high-temperature minerals, many of which are unstable at the surface of the earth. These minerals are weathered and create minerals such as clays. Other minerals (e.g. quartz) are freed from the rocks and can be carried away by gravity. The igneous and metamorphic rocks are thus eroded and the materials that formed then are carried away by wind and water, ultimately moved by rivers to the oceans. The sediments that are carried there are deposited in different areas according to their grain size -- much of the quartz remains as sand sized while clays are commonly much smaller and carried into deeper water. The sediments are deposited and buried. Clays are compacted into finely layered rocks called shales or coarsely layered called mudstones. Sands do not compact so readily but are cemented by diagenetic minerals to form sandstones. All these are sedimentary rocks.

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Sedimentary rocks are formed when sediment is deposited out of air , ice , wind , gravity or water flows carrying the particles in suspension. This sediment is often formed when weathering and erosion break down a rock into loose material in a source area.
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