Topographic maps show features. They are useful for navigation, walking and driving.
Street maps are not necessarily very accurate but show the relationship of roads to one another.
Maritime Charts are used for navigation at sea. They show depths and lighthouses etc.
Thematic maps display data (eg population, density, fuel consumption etc)
Political maps show boundaries of countries
Cadastral maps show property ownership
Large scale plans are used by construction workers and planners
note: There is a common mistake about the meaning of large and small scales. "Large Scale" means that features (houses etc) look big (eg 1:500, 1:1000). "Small Scale" means features look small and could show a whole country or even the whole world (eg 1: 1,000,000)
Hope this helps:)