AbstractSignificant changes have been observed since 1991 in the nature and pattern of urban growth in India. Our cities are in the midst of restructuring space, in terms of both use and form. The paper addresses various complex urban issues associated with the present pattern of urban development through review of urban development of selected metropolitan cities of India which have experienced the impacts of LPG (Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization) process. Spatial trends, prevailing zoning, building bye laws (Floor Area Ratio and density) development control regulations, urban housing and transport are analyzed in the context of the current phenomenon of urban sprawl witnessed in India. The implications of such growth patterns of India are projected and the impacts analyzed. In conclusion, the need for an alternative sustainable urban development pattern is outlined for future metropolitan cities of India.
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Transport of transportation is the movement of goods and people from one location to another. Transportation plays a major role in the economy, which increases the production efficiency and links to the logistics system. There are many different modes of transportation, however, they are devided into 3 basic types depending on over what surface they travel: land, water, and air. Water transport is the process of transport watercraft, such as a barge, boat, ship or sailboat over a body of water such as a sea, ocean, lake, canal. One of benefits is that cost of its construction and maintenance is very low. Therefore, it is economical mode for transporting heavy loads even cargo. Moreover, It is effective method of transporting large quantities of non-perishable goods over long distance, which plays major role in international trade.
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