n physics, an inverse-square law is any physical law stating that a specified physicalquantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity. The fundamental cause for this can be understood as geometric dilution corresponding to point-source radiation into three-dimensional space (see diagram). Mathematically formulated:It can also be mathematically expressed as:The divergence of a vector field which is the resultant of radial inverse-square law fields with respect to one or more sources is everywhere proportional to the strength of the local sources, and hence zero outside sources. Newton's law of universal gravitationfollows an inverse-square law, as do the effects of electric, magnetic, light, sound, andradiation phenomena.Radar energy expands during both the signal transmission and also on the reflected return, so the inverse square for both paths means that the radar will receive energy according to 1/r4 power.In order to prevent dilution of energy while propagating a signal, certain methods can be used such as a waveguide, which acts like a canal does for water, or like how a gun barrel restricts hot gas expansion to one dimension in order to prevent loss of energy transfer to a bullet.
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